The materials, information and answers provided through this website are not intended to replace the medical
advice or services of a qualified veterinarian or other pet health care professional. Consult your own veterinarian for answers
to specific medical questions, including diagnosis, treatment, therapy or medical attention.
Hot Weather Breeding
Hot weather takes its toll on animals, but especially the male breeding dog. Male dog fertility peaks around 5 years of age
as does the female, but can breed and settle females long after 5 years if managed for fertility.
Season of the year:
Research tells us the season of the year does have an effect on concentration of sperm per ejaculate. Increase concentration
occurs in Spring/Early Summer and lower concentration in Late Summer/Fall (Tahs 1981). Sperm concentration is thought to be
influenced by photoperiod (day length) and the environmental temperature. One or both can be controlled. Though the concentration
of sperm fluctuates, the normal dog is still fertile and can settle females any time of the year if managed well.
The testicle is outside the body in the scrotum to keep it cooler than body temp. The breeding male is often housed outside
and semen quality he is producing is sensitive to hot weather. When outside temp approaches 102°F – normal body temp
– male fertility can suffer. Over 105°F and males can be subfertile or infertile if overheating happens. The issue with
the testicle is the stored sperm in the epididymis – if it gets too hot the stored sperm dies and the replacement can
take 60 days. Temperature is worth managing!
Water misters over the kennel with shade have long been used and can lower
the environmental temp by 10°F. Simple solutions such as mister hoses, or in warm areas of the south more permanent nozzle
misters, are sufficient. Timers can be set for the hottest part of day, 5 min every 30 min if temp is under 102°F and twice
that high when over 102°F. Or just turn on during the 4-6 hours of afternoon sun at a low level. The shade can be permanent
metal roofing or shade netting. Feedlot netting lasts for years and is effective. Just be sure to keep netting out of reach.
If you have an air-conditioned kennel, keep males inside and don’t allow outside access during the hot of day. Breed
when the evening cools or early morning is even better. When breeding, do not use a male in hot weather more than once a day
and never pen breed.
Frequency of use:
Sperm is viable for up to nine days in a female with natural breeding. (Threlfall OSU). AI breeding sperm is viable for
3-5 days, so most of us need to breed smarter not more frequent. The female ovulates at the end of standing heat, which is
why they quit standing accepting the male. The best conception rate is when females are bred 4 days before or 3 days after
ovulation. That is pretty wide window to hit!
Research done on frequency of use for males found healthy stud dogs could
breed once daily without affecting fertility. In hot weather, never pen breed, leaving male with female! Put the females with
the male and remove after the tie to limit the temperature influence and keep sperm numbers per ejaculate high. Most breeders
moved away from pen breeding to better manage their best genetic stud dogs. Breeding every 3rd day will increase the number
of sperm per ejaculate and increase success if some sperm are killed by hot weather. Sub-fertile stud dogs should only be
used every third day for the same reason — Limited use will increase the number of live viable sperm per ejaculate available
to fertilize eggs.
Infertile or Sterile Male:
The number of live sperm and limited number of abnormal sperm more closely correlates with ability to settle females
than the total number of sperm! Both can be influenced by temperature. When we check males we cannot call them sterile on
the basis of one sample. Repeatable lack of sperm or dead sperm is needed to declare a stud dog infertile. There are multiple
reasons for temporary infertility from trauma to the testicle or infection and this article focus — overheating. Always
check at least three times over 60 days before calling the stud dog sterile.
Both male and female fertility is affected by Brucella Canis! Any dog affected with testicular issues and infertility
should have B. canis in the screening test. Likewise, any dog brought into the kennel for breeding should have Brucella testing
to protect your breeding stock investment.
Testing involves serum sent to a lab and the most accurate test is the PCR
test done at Kansas State University and Iowa State University. Other tests for B. canis have had issues with false positives
and negatives not seen with the PCR test that detects the Brucella DNA. If you have a positive test, you can be assured it
is positive and, likewise the negative is negative, no repeat testing is needed to prove the test results. Please always test
any new dog and especially any adult dog brought into the kennel for breeding and be sure the PCR test was the one used.
Male Fertility Supplements:
- L-Carnitine plays a vital role in the process of sperm development, in promoting proper maturation, and morphology of
sperm. It also has a role in ensuring the maintenance of sperm quality and vitality.
- Vitamins A, C, E, and Selenium are important vitamins and cleansing antioxidants that play a key role in repairing damage
caused by the environment and aging.
- Grape seed Extract scours damaging free-radicals from your system and literally prevents “rusting” of tissues
and cells of the testicle.
- Zinc has been shown to have a positive effect on sperm formation, sperm motility, and testosterone metabolism.
- Vitamins - B6, B12 and Folate are vitamins critical to male reproductive.
- Lastly Vitamin D has shown to increase sperm motility and I always use if males are primarily housed inside.
These are the vitamins, minerals, and herbs found through research to be helpful in mammals for maximum fertility.
They can be useful when given during the breeding season. Research these products yourself or use Breeders' Edge® Oxy-Stud™
— with all these products in it at levels research recommended. Oxy-Stud is used during breeding season and best to
start 30 days before for best results. The reason for use is maximum fertility and to keep the stud dog fertile. Most products
do not correct infertility but can be helpful. You have an investment in your stud dog; the use of supplements can help keep
your investment fertile!
Hot weather breeding is never a sure thing and is one of the toughest management times in
the kennel! Keeping your stud dogs cool and not overusing can increase your hot weather breeding success!
From Revival Animal Health
Overheating Dogs - Create Dog Popsicles - Really!
The heat affects animals in different ways. Some lean breeds have
little problems with the extra warmth if allowed to get out of the sun! Always use caution with elderly and very young animals
who have a harder time regulating their body temperatures. A young puppy’s world is a toy and they get up in the morning
thinking of playing! Puppies under 1 year can get so excited with attention that you need to force them to “cool off”
between play times. Some breeds require extra caution in the summer months. Examples are the "pushed-in" nose dogs (Brachycelphalic),
such as Pugs or breeds who can't pant effectively in the heat. Overweight dogs and dogs with extra skin, like SharPeis, require
additional vigilance in hot weather.
Beating the heat:
Beating the heat is not an easy one for your pet. Unlike humans, dogs do not sweat. They get rid
of the heat through their mouth and lips by basically “sweating through their mouth” when they pant. They release
heat through their pads, so taking them to the county fair or outside market when temperatures are on the rise is asking for
- Cool grass will remove heat from a dog, but concrete or gravel will add to the issue! When temps are high, leave your
pet home where they can get out of the sun!
- Feed animals in the evening when temp’s drop! If they are a twice a day feeder, feed ¼ of the diet in the AM and
¾ of the diet in the PM. Low Fat/Protein diets are not only good for the waste, but it creates less heat in digestion than
high fat high protein diets do.
- Make Popsicles to control heat! Use Pfizer RE-SORB® electrolytes in one gallon of water and add 1 tsp of beef/chicken bouillon. Freeze in ice cube trays and give to your pets as treats.
That will keep them cool! Use them outside if your pet is not use to ice cubes or they will make a mess trying to figure out
the “eating technique” the first time. Dogs get rid of heat through their mouths so this works great. Freeze large
dog popsicles in Dixie cups. Cheap and effective cooling!
- When using one pack of RE-SORB® electrolytes and one gallon of the water you are basically making “Dog
Outside Dog – Caution:
Be sure the pet can get out of the sun – this is #1.
- If you don’t have shade -- create it! Using sun screening over the kennel is easy. Use the same stuff used by Greenhouses
or livestock and fasten with “Zip Ties” to the top of the kennel. You can use chain link top rails for support
if needed, but most will not need it. Temps can be 5-7º F cooler under the shade.
- Misters are available at hardware stores. To make them easy, put two on an 8’ PVC pipe with an end hose attachment.
Zip tie it to any structure in the yard or the kennel. Ace Hardware’s are great help and the Misters lower temp of the
kennel 10 º F without creating mud!
- Misting hoses also work. Keep hoses high on the outside of the fencing and under the shade netting, attach with zip ties
for easy removal – instant relief! Turn on in the heat of the day for several hours or use a timer on your faucet that
runs the mister 15 minutes each hour.
- We all use cool fresh water and electrolytes, but ice chunks will cool the core body temp when your pet replaces panting
fluid loss. One cup-size chunk will last through the heat of the day in a stainless water bucket.
You will read don’t jog with your pet in summer, but that is not correct! Our advice is if you
are having issues staying comfortable while exercising - both of you should stay home!
- Canine Backpacks – These are light, nylon, and hold 2 water bottles half frozen, carried in the pockets.
They are simple saddles with balanced pockets on either side. Often used in young dogs to carry water in summer and bricks
the rest of the year. They wear the dog out in half the miles and give the teenager something to concentrate on when training
“Putting them to work”. If you don’t understand you never owned a lab less than 2 years of age!
- Collapsible Bowls are a must if you take your dog with you. Community water has more bugs than you want to expose your
pet to -- use his own bowl. It also fits in the back pack.
- Take a small amount of cool water and pour it over the back pack to aid cooling.
Hot weather is hard on
everyone. Help your dog tolerate the heat – Make Popsicles! It’s easy and your dog will love the cool treat!From
Revival Animal Health